Jesus is Yahweh[1]

There is only one God (Deuteronomy 6:4). He is infinitely more complex than his creatures. He exists in three persons, known as the Father, Son and Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:18–20) Here’s where the elastic in our brains starts to snap.

This is beyond our understanding, which is as it should be. We are talking about God, not a creature. We are images of God. We are derivative simplifications of who he is.

We know that God is love (1 John 4:8, 16). For that to be a true statement, he has to love before, and apart from, his creation. A god who is not three persons in one cannot be love. The Father, Son and Holy Spirit love one another.

Each person of the Trinity is all of God, not a part of God (John 10:30; 14:7–9). God doesn’t have parts. The person who took the name Jesus/ Saviour at his birth is also the Creator (John 1:1–5; Colossians 1:16). He is Yahweh.

Jesus Shares God’s Name

When a person is baptised, they are baptised into the name (singular) of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:18–20).

God’s name is the Hebrew word, Yahweh. His name means “I am” (Exodus 3:1–6). The name Yahweh doesn’t appear in the New Testament. It is translated, using an emphatic form of words.[2]

The New Testament writers used a Greek translation of the Old Testament which substituted the word kyrios, meaning “lord,” for Yahweh. This dates back long before the time of Jesus.

The Third Commandment states, “You shall not take the name of Yahweh your God lightly, for Yahweh will not acquit anyone who takes his name lightly” (Exodus 20:7; Deuteronomy 5:11). Over time Jews thought the best way to avoid breaking the third commandment was to never say God’s name at all. Rabbis called this “fencing the law.” They thought their extra rules would help people avoid committing a very dangerous sin.

When the Jews translated the Old Testament into Greek around two hundred years before Christ, they changed the law in Leviticus 24:16. The original Hebrew that Moses wrote says, “One who curses the name of Yahweh shall be put to death.” Their Greek translation says “One who names the name of the Lord is to be put to death.”

When Yahweh appears in the Hebrew Old Testament, English Bibles commonly print LORD in all capital letters. If God is called “the lord Yahweh” in the Hebrew text, English Bibles print it as “the Lord GOD.”

God didn’t forbid saying his name. He said not to “take up the name of God” in a light or empty fashion. “Taking up the name” is more than just pronouncing the word. An adopted child takes the name of their adoptive family. Women took the name of the husband’s family. Her children would be born into that family, and have a right to inherit the husband’s land. Gentiles who joined the nation of Israel took up the name of being an Israelite. They became members of God’s covenant people (cf. Isaiah 44:5). Under the New Covenant, a person is baptised into the Name (Matthew 28:18–20). That is how a person identifies as a disciple or trainee of Christ.[3] From that point on they are known as people who belong to Christ (“Christians,” Acts 11:26; John 1:12). “Taking up the name” also includes “calling on the Name” (Genesis 4:26; Zephaniah 3:9; Romans 10:12–13; 1 Corinthians 1:12).

Blasphemy is verbal abuse. The Jews regarded the act of saying God’s name in a casual manner as a form of disrespect, or verbal abuse. To do so reduced his unique name to the level of something common, and therefore unclean. Eventually, even saying the word “God” was regarded as taking the same risk.

Replacing the name Yahweh, or the word “God,” with other words, dates back to the days of Daniel (Daniel 4:26). Matthew wrote his account of the life and ministry of Jesus to explain the gospel to Jews. They preferred the phrase “Kingdom of Heaven” to “Kingdom of God.”[4]

This practice led to problems when reading the Old Testament aloud in Hebrew. Until the middle ages, the Hebrew text was written without any vowels. English would look like this:


There were problems determining the correct pronunciation of some of the words. The rabbis could not bring themselves to place vowels between the letters. That would be adding to the word of God (Deuteronomy 4:2). They chose instead to use dots and dashes, above or below the letters.

God’s name was written as the four Hebrew letters equivalent to YHWH. When reading aloud, they would say the Hebrew word for Lord, ’adonay, instead. To make sure they didn’t forget to do this, they put the vowels for ’adonay onto the consonants YHWH: YaHoWaH. During the Reformation, the Bible was translated from Hebrew into many languages. Those translators read the consonants and the vowels together, and wrote God’s name as Jehovah (cf. Exodus 6:3 KJV). It isn’t a real Hebrew word.

The New Testament use of Old Testament passages about Yahweh

When the New Testament writers used passages containing Yahweh’s name, they often understood them to be referring to Jesus. Here are some examples:


Zechariah 14:5 Then Yahweh, my God, will come; all the holy ones with Him!

Cf. Deuteronomy 33:2


1 Thessalonians 3:13 …at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all His holy ones.


Isaiah 66:15 or behold, Yahweh will come in fire and His chariot is the whirlwind, to deliver His furious anger, and His rebuke with flames of fire.


2 Thessalonians 1:7–8 when the Lord Jesus will be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels in flaming fire,



Many Old Testament passages speak about “the day of Yahweh.”[6] The New Testament writers identify “the day of Yahweh” as “the day of the Lord Jesus” (2 Corinthians 1:14; cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 2 Peter 3:10). “The day of the appearing of Yahweh” is “the day of Jesus’s appearing” (Zechariah 9:14; 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:8).

When John the Baptist quoted Isaiah (Isaiah 40:3; Matthew 3:3; John 1:23), he called the people to prepare the way for Yahweh. The one who appeared in fulfilment of this prophecy was Jesus.

Here are some more examples where the name of Yahweh has been replaced by a reference to Jesus in the New Testament:


Psalm 102:21, 25 To tell in Zion the name of Yahweh, and His praise in Jerusalem…. Of old You founded the earth, and the heavens are the work of Your hands.


Hebrews 1:8–10 But to the Son He says… “Your throne O God, is forever and ever…Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with oil of joy…(Psalm 45:6–7) You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of your hands;”


Jeremiah 9:24 but let him who boasts boast of this, that he understands and knows Me, that I am Yahweh who exercises faithfulness, with judgement and justice on earth; for I delight in these things,” declares Yahweh.


1 Corinthians 1:30-31 But by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption, so that, as it is written, “The one who boasts should boast in the Lord.”


Isaiah 40:13 Who regulates the Spirit of Yahweh, or what man is His counsellor and informs Him?

1 Corinthians 2:16 For “Who has known the Lord’s mind to be one who instructs him?” But we have the mind of Christ.


The Holy One

In the Old Testament Yahweh is frequently identified as “the Holy One” (Isaiah 30:15).[7] The Jews were expecting Yahweh, the Holy One, to come to save them. Jesus is identified as the Holy One fulfilling that promise (Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; John 6:69; 1 Peter 1:15; 1 John 2:20).

The Angel of Yahweh is Yahweh

When Moses turned aside to see the burning bush, we are told that this was an appearance of (Exodus 3:2) “the angel/ messenger of Yahweh.” It is this “angel/ messenger of Yahweh” who revealed to Moses God’s name. The text identifies the angel of Yahweh as God.

Exodus 3:14        God said to Moses, “I am who I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I am has sent me to you.’”

We might think that the angel of Yahweh was just quoting the message from Yahweh. That becomes difficult given that the people who saw the angel of Yahweh believed themselves to be in the presence of Yahweh. This is reinforced when the angel of Yahweh also had this understanding of his identity. He required Moses to remove his shoes in his presence.

In Judges 2:1 the angel of Yahweh claimed to have done for Israel all the mighty acts of redemption, which Yahweh did.

Judges 2:1           Now the angel of Yahweh came up from Gilgal to Bochim. And he said, “I brought you up out of Egypt and brought you into the land which I swore to your fathers; and I said, ‘I will never break My covenant with you’”

When Gideon met the angel of Yahweh “he said, ‘Alas, O Lord Yahweh! For now I have seen the angel of Yahweh face to face.’” (Judges 6:22). Yahweh replied with comforting words assuring Gideon that he would not die.

The angel of Yahweh appeared to Samson’s mother and father (Judges 13). He appeared as a man. Manoah asked Yahweh in prayer to send back this one whom he called “the man of God” (vs. 8). He assumed the man was a prophet. When invited to dinner, the angel of Yahweh declined to eat the food. He told Manoah to prepare a burnt offering for Yahweh. When asked his name, the angel replied (vs. 18), “Why do you ask my name, seeing it is wonderful?” When Manoah laid out the burnt offering, a flame went up from the altar, and the angel of Yahweh went up in the flame. Manoah, realising what had happened, turned to his wife and said (vs. 22) “We will surely die, for we have seen God.”

The Angel of Yahweh Talks to Yahweh

In a couple of passages Yahweh and the angel of Yahweh enter into conversation with each other. In 2 Samuel 24 the angel of Yahweh was busy punishing the people of Israel. As he approached Jerusalem, Yahweh spoke to him.

2 Samuel 24:16   When the angel stretched out his hand toward Jerusalem to ruin it, Yahweh grieved on account of the destruction, and said to the angel who destroyed many people, “Now drop your hand!” And the angel of Yahweh was by the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite.

In Zechariah the angel of Yahweh prays to Yahweh:

Zechariah 1:12    Then the angel of Yahweh said, “O Yahweh of armies, how long will You have no compassion on Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, with which You have been indignant these seventy years?”

In Zechariah 2:11 the angel of Yahweh was speaking as God. He affirmed that God sent him to meet Zechariah. Here we have Yahweh in two persons.

Zechariah 2:11    Many nations will join themselves to Yahweh in that day and will become My people. Then I will dwell among you, and you will know that the Yahweh of armies has sent Me to you.

The Visible Glory of Yahweh

In Ezekiel 1 the prophet gives us the fullest description we have of the appearance of the glory of Yahweh. The glory of Yahweh is also identified as the angel of Yahweh. This is what the people of Israel saw as they moved out of Egypt and wandered in the wilderness for forty years (Exodus 16:10; Exodus 24:16–17).

This visible appearance form of Yahweh filled the tabernacle when it was erected (Exodus 40:34–35). When Solomon completed the temple in Jerusalem this happened again (1 Kings 8:11; 2 Chronicles 7:1–2).

Isaiah predicted that “the glory of Yahweh will be revealed, and all flesh will see together; for the mouth of Yahweh has spoken” (Isaiah 40:5). Jesus said that this would happen when he returns “in the glory of his Father with his angels” (Matthew 16:27). Then “all the tribes of earth will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory” (24:30). On that day “every eye will see him” (Revelation 1:7)

In January, 587 BC, the Babylonians besieged Jerusalem. The people thought that the temple could not be captured because God was visibly present in his temple. Then Ezekiel saw the glory of Yahweh rise and leave the temple via the eastern gate (Ezekiel 10:4, 18; 11:23). The temple was destroyed (2 Kings 25:1–21). In a later vision he saw the glory cloud return to the temple (43:4–5).

The Jews returned from exile and rebuilt the temple. The glory of Yahweh did not reappear as they had expected. They continued to hope for Yahweh’s return. They held on to promises such as those voiced by Habakkuk,

Habakkuk 2:14    For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of Yahweh, as the waters cover the sea.

When it came time for Jesus to be born, the glory of Yahweh reappeared to shepherds who were looking after their sheep (Luke 2:9).

In the introduction to his account of the Gospel, John makes an astounding statement. The glory of Yahweh has returned. John tells us that he saw it. It was the person of Jesus.

John 1:14             And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only offspring of the Father, full of grace and truth.

Following Jesus’s ascension on the clouds, in fulfilment of Daniel’s vision (Acts 1:9), he sent his Holy Spirit to take up residence in his people (John 15:26). It is in the person of the Holy Spirit that Jesus keeps his promise to be with us until the close of the age (Matthew 28:20). The Holy Spirit is all of God, and he is sent by Jesus. He appeared as the glory of Yahweh in a new way in the upper room. This time the pillar of fire did not occupy a tent or a room in a building. In keeping with Zechariah’s vision (Zechariah 2:4–5), it spread out over the heads of each of the frightened Christians assembled there.

Acts 2:1–4           In fulfilling the day of Pentecost, they were all together in one place. And suddenly there came a noise from heaven like a violent rushing wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. And tongues like fire appeared to them and were being distributed, and they rested on each one of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit was giving them the ability to speak plainly.

The Son of Man

In his vision Daniel tells us:

Daniel 7:13–14    I was seeing in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a son of man[8] was coming, and He came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before Him. And to Him was given dominion, honour and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations and languages might worship Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion which will not pass away; And his kingdom is one which will not be destroyed.

This human figure was seen ascending on a cloud up to the presence of God. In riding on the clouds, he is seen as exercising a prerogative reserved for God alone (Isaiah 19:1; Psalm 104:3; Acts 1:9–10). He also received the worship of men from every nation under heaven. The word here translated “worship” is only used of the worship of God, or of fake gods (Daniel 3:12, 14, 17f.; Ezra 7:19, 24).

During his earthly ministry Jesus referred to himself as “the Son of Man.” He did this to identify himself with this person whom Daniel saw. He claimed the unique prerogatives of God (Mark 2:10). John describes this same one, now crowned as king, returning on the clouds to judge the world (Revelation 14:14).

Jesus used the title “the Son of Man” more often than any other, during his earthly ministry. There is a transition at Acts 2:36. There Peter announces that “God has made him Lord, as well as Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” Here Peter is reflecting on Jesus’s ascension (Acts 1:9–10). Prior to his ascension, Jesus was anointed to be king. Like previous anointed kings, he then went out and defeated his enemies (Satan, Matthew 4:1–11; Luke 4:1–13) and death. He was then taken up to heaven and enthroned at the right hand of the Father. He exercises his lordship thereafter as the king and representative head of God’s people. In that sense he fulfils Isaiah’s prophecy (Isaiah 9:6) that he will be called “wonderful counsellor, mighty God, forever father, ruler of peace.”

The Son/ Servant of God

Isaiah spoke of the coming of God’s servant,[9] using a word (‘ebed) that means servant or vassal. New Testament writers translated it as “son.” This is the servant/son whom Isaiah said would suffer and die to take away the guilt of God’s people. On two occasions God announced that Jesus is the one of whom Isaiah spoke. The first time was at Jesus’s baptism (Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22). The second was on the mountain with Moses and Elijah before his final trip to Jerusalem (Matthew 12:18; Mark 9:7; Luke 9:35). This is different to the set of prophecies concerning “the Son of God” who would be the anointed king (Psalm 2).

The Son of God

Many ancient nations told stories of their many gods and goddesses. These gods were notoriously promiscuous and violent. They produced offspring. There were stories of gods having sex with women, and producing children with great powers. The Bible consistently denies the existence of these imaginary gods (Deuteronomy 32:21; 2 Kings 19:18; Isaiah 37:19; Jeremiah 2:11; 16:20; Acts 19:26; Galatians 4:8). Yahweh alone is God.

Even into modern times,[10] kings and rulers claimed the right to rule on the basis that they were sons of a god. The Pharaohs took names such as Rameses (“Offspring of Ra’,” the sun god), and Thutmosis (“Offspring of Thoth,” the god of writing, magic and wisdom). Hatshepsut described in explicit detail her conception, resulting from a visit of the god Amon with her mother. Kings of Damascus bore the title “Son of Hadad” (Ben Hadad 1 Kings 15:18; 20:1). Hadad was their national god.

The psalmists and prophets taunted the arrogance of kings who made such claims.

In Psalm 82 “the assembly of the gods” (vs. 1) refers to the mythological assemblies of the gods of the gentiles in places like Mt Hermon (Canaanites). In vv. 6–7 the song continues “I said, ‘You are gods, and all of you sons of the Highest,’ nevertheless you will die like men.”

Isaiah taunted the king of Babylon:

Isaiah 14:13–16   “But you said, ‘I will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of El (god), and I will sit on the mount of assembly…I will make myself like the Highest One.’…Nevertheless you will be thrust down to Sheol….Those who see you will gaze at you…‘Is this the man who made the earth tremble?’”

Ezekiel mocked the king of Tyre who made similar claims for himself:

Ezekiel 28:2, 7–9 “You have said, ‘I am a god (El), I sit in the seat of gods’…Yet you are a man and not God,…therefore I will bring foreigners upon you….They will bring you down to the pit, and you will die the death of those who are killed in the heart of the seas. Will you still say, ‘I am a god,’ in the presence of your killer, though you are a man and not God.”

The claims of these god-kings were blasphemous narratives that intimidated their subjects into giving them free reign to commit great wickedness.

Moses confronted Pharaoh with Yahweh’s statement that “Israel is my son, my firstborn,” (Exodus 4:22–23). When God spoke to Israel through Moses, he said, “You are the sons of Yahweh your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1). When Israel went into exile God spoke through Isaiah the command, “Bring My sons from afar and My daughters from the ends of the earth” (Isaiah 43:6).

Hosea said, “When Israel was a youth, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called My son” (Hosea 11:1). In Matthew’s use of these words (Matthew 2:15), he identified Jesus with Israel. He could do that because Jesus is the king or covenant head of God’s people. The heir of David’s throne relates to God as a son to his father. This is what God promised David, “I will be father to him and he will be son to Me” (2 Samuel 7:14).

The title “son of God” goes all the way back to Adam (Luke 3:38). In God’s original design, every human being relates to God as a child to their father. We are supposed to be God’s forever family. Adam walked away from that relationship. In the person of Jesus, who is the head of a new humanity, that relationship is restored. Every believer in Christ has the right to be called a child/ son of God (John 1:12). No-one else has that right.

It is common for people to think that Jesus’s title, “the Son of God,” is another way of saying that he is God. People use the statement “Jesus is the Son of God” as a less confronting way of saying that Jesus is God. Being the Son of God is not the same thing as being God. Lots of people are sons of God who are not God.

In fact, this title points towards Jesus’s humanity. The Son of God is the man who rules over the creation under God. He is the image of God. He is the human vicegerent of the Kingdom of God. He is the anointed one (Psalm 2:2, 6–7, 12). He is the man who regains the dominion lost by Adam at the fall (Luke 4:5–8).

When Jesus was anointed with the Holy Spirit he became “the anointed one,” the Christ. Before that moment he was the one who would be anointed to be king. Before his conception in Mary’s womb, he was always going to be “the Son of God,” the heir of David’s throne, and of the dominion that Adam lost. From before the creation of the world, this was God’s plan.

Because he is also God (“Before Abraham was, I am.” John 8:58), it is appropriate to use these titles to speak of him before he became a man and took these offices. This is important because being “the Son of God” doesn’t mean the Second Person of the Trinity is somehow a lesser god. It is important that we affirm his eternal nature as fully God as well as affirming the history of his incarnation and redemptive work.

We can use these names and titles to speak of the second person of the Trinity, before he became a man and took on these offices. Jesus’s biological half-brother (Mark 6:3), Jude, wrote a letter that is included in the New Testament. Our earliest copies of Jude’s letter read,[11]

Jude 1:5               Now I want to remind you, although you once fully knew it, that Jesus, who saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe. (ESV)

Paul treats the title “Christ” similarly.

1 Corinthians 10:4 and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ.

“The Rock” is a title for God in the Old Testament.[12] The word refers to a high place at the top of a cliff. It is a place no enemy could attack. It is a refuge. God is the ultimate refuge and safe place for his people. Paul was saying that Christ, because he is God, travelled with the people of Israel through the wilderness.

1 Corinthians 10:9 We must not put Christ to the test, as some of them did, and were destroyed by serpents,

Here Paul was referring to Israel’s rebellion against God (Numbers 21:1–9). He was saying that when the people of Israel put God to the test, they were putting Jesus, the Christ, to the test, because he is God.


John speaks of the Son of God being sent into the world.

John 3:17             For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him.

He also speaks of Christ being sent into the world.

Because Jesus is both a man and God, it is appropriate to use Jesus’s human titles retrospectively like this. So, we can also say, “God did not send Jesus into the world to condemn the world,” or “God did not send Christ into the world to condemn the world (cf. 17:3).”


The Old Testament writers bear witness to Yahweh talking to himself, about himself, and sending himself to perform his mighty works. Jesus and the New Testament writers spoke of Jesus being the fulfilment of Old Testament prophecies that spoke of the coming and redemptive work of Yahweh. They also identified various appearances of Yahweh in the Old Testament as being appearances of Jesus, before his conception in Mary’s womb. As we read the Old Testament with the New Testament witnesses, we are confronted by Yahweh/Jesus throughout the whole text. To understand the Old Testament in any other way is to miss the point of these books.



For Reflection and Discussion

  1. How comfortable are you to say, “Jesus is God?”
  2. Why do we need to know that Jesus is all of God, not a part of God?
  3. How does this affect the way you read about Yahweh/ God in the Old Testament?
  4. How does this affect your understanding of what Jesus says and does in the New Testament?
  5. How does this affect your approach to your day knowing that the Spirit of Christ, who is Yahweh himself, dwells in every believer all the time?

[1] All Bible quotations are the author’s own translation.

[2] In Greek the word eimi is the first person singular of the verb to be, meaning “I am.” There is no need to add the personal pronoun ego. When we read the words ego eimi the speaker is emphasizing the statement “I am.” We find this idiom particularly at John 6:20; 8:18, 24, 28, 58; 13:19.

[3] To be a believer without being baptised is to have a relationship with Jesus that is akin to a couple living together without being married. The missing element is the public covenantal commitment.

[4]32 times: Matthew 3:2; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19–20; 7:21; 8:11; 10:7; 11:11–12; 13:11, 24, 31, 33, 44–45, 47, 52; 16:19; 18:1, 3–4, 23; 19:12, 14, 23; 20:1; 22:2; 23:13; 25:1. “Kingdom of God” 4 times: Matthew 12:28; 19:24; 21:31, 43. Cf. Mark 1:15; 4:11, 26, 30; 9:1, 47; 10:14-15, 23-25; 12:34; 14:25; 15:43; Luke 4:43; 6:20; 7:28; 8:1, 10; 9:2, 11, 27, 60, 62; 10:9, 11; 11:20; 13:18, 20, 28-29; 14:15; 16:16; 17:20-21; 18:16-17, 24-25, 29; 19:11; 21:31; 22:16, 18; 23:51; John 3:3, 5; Acts 1:3; 8:12; 14:22; 19:8; 28:23, 31; Romans 14:17; 1 Corinthians 4:20; 6:9-10; 15:50; Galatians 5:21; Colossians 4:11; 2 Thessalonians. 1:5.

[5] oNCe uPoN a TiMe THeRe WeRe THRee BeaRS,

a MuMMa BeaR, a PoPPa BeaR, and LiTTLe BaBY BeaR.

[6] Isaiah 13:6, 9; 58:13; Ezekiel 13:5; 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1, 11, 31; 3:14; Amos 5:18, 20; Obadiah 1:15; Zephaniah 1:7, 14; Malachi 4:5.

[7] 2 Kings 19:22; Job 6:10; Psalm 78:41; 89:18; 106:16; Proverbs 9:10; 30:3; Isaiah 1:4; 5:19, 24; 10:20; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19, 23; 30:11–12; 31:1; 37:23; 40:25; 41:14, 16, 20; 43:3, 14; 45:11; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 54:5; 55:5; 60:9, 14; Jeremiah 50:29; 51:5; Ezekiel 39:7; Hosea 11:9, 12; Habakkuk 3:3.

[8] Every occurrence of the phrase “son of man” in Hebrew or Aramaic, prior to Jesus, lacks the definite article, and should be translated “a son of man.” The phrase means “an individual man.” So, for example, Psalm 8:4 says “What is mankind that You take thought of him, and a son of man that You care for him?” In other words, “What is humanity that you remember they exist, let alone an individual person whom you visit.” See also Job 25:6; Psalm 80:17; 144:3; Isaiah 51:12; 56:2. This is important. Jesus was identifying himself as “the Son of Man,” being the one in Daniel’s vision. No-one else ever did this.

[9] In Isaiah the following people are designated as servants of Yahweh: Isaiah himself (20:3), King David (37:35), Jacob/ Israel (41:8–9; 44:1–2, 21; 45:4; 49:3), and an unnamed individual who will suffer and die to pay for the sins of his people (42:12, 19; 52:13–53:12).

[10] In modern times the Emperor of China was deemed the “Son of Heaven” with the right to rule the world. The Emperor of Japan is believed to be a son of the sun goddess Amaterasu.

[11] Jesus’s name was written in the Greek text in its abbreviated form using the first and last letters of his name (is8). Later, people who copied this letter, found it confusing to speak of Jesus having been involved in the exodus. A number of copyists changed the first letter so that the word became kyrios (“lord”) (Ks8). Others changed the first letter so that the word became theos (“God”) (qs8). Still others, having these two different versions in front of them, wrote “Lord God” instead of Jesus.

[12] See Deuteronomy 32:4, 15, 18, 30–31; 2 Samuel 22:2–3, 32, 47; 23:3; Psalm 18:2, 31, 46; 19:14; 28:1; 31:2–3; 42:9; 61:2; 62:2, 6–7; 71:3; 78:35; 89:26; 92:15; 94:22; 95:1; 144:1; Isaiah 17:10; 26:4; 30:29; 44:8; 51:1; Habakkuk 1:12.

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